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Citizenship and Migration

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This list gives only a few titles of books that have been influential and also that are available in English.


Aleinikoff, Alexander. & Klusmeyer, Douglas B. 2002: Citizenship Policies for an Age of Migration, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Washington D.C.
Liberal democracies, facing high levels of immigration, are rethinking citizenship policies. How should liberal states fashion membership policies for newcomers? A panel of international experts convened by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace offers detailed and important recommendations on issues of acquisition of citizenship, dual nationality and the political, social, and economic rights of immigrants.

Bauböck, R. 1994: Transnational Citizenship: Membership and Rights in International Migration, Edward Elgar, Northhampton.
Regional integration, mass migration and the development of transnational organizations are just some of the factors challenging the traditional definitions of citizenship. In this book, Rainer Bauböck argues that citizenship rights will have to extend beyond nationality and state territory if liberal democracies are to remain true to their own principles of inclusive membership and equal basic rights.

Bauböck, Rainer, Eva Ersbøll, Kees Groenendijk & Harald Waldrauch (Eds.) 2006: The Acquisition and Loss of Nationality. Policies and Trends in 15 European states, 2 volumes, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam.
Nationality and citizenship have recently become a hotly contested policy field in several European states. Reforms of the acquisition or loss of nationality have been shaped by concerns about the integration of immigrants as well as by attempts to strengthen ties with emigrants. A team of 30 researchers has examined nationality laws and their implementation in the pre-2004 Member States of the European Union. Volume 2 of this study presents detailed studies of each country’s nationality laws, their historical background and current provisions. It is a companion to volume 1 which contains comparative analyses based on a novel methodology that permits a detailed comparison how nationality can be acquired or lost across all 15 countries. The results show divergent trends towards liberalization in some countries and new restrictions of access to nationality in others.

Bauböck, Rainer, Bernhard Perchinig & Wiebke Sievers (Eds.) 2007: Citizenship Policies in the New Europe. Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam. Forthcoming.
This book examines nationality and citizenship laws in the new member states of the European Union mainly Eastern and Central Europe.

Feldblum, Miriam 1999: Reconstructing Citizenship: The Politics of Nationality Reform and Immigration in Contemporary France, State University of New York Press, Albany NY.
Studying the politics of citizenship reforms and immigration in contemporary France, Reconstructing Citizenship reveals the influential roles played by key figures and institutions in reconstructing French citizenship. An extended political process framework is used by Feldblum to study domestic changes in citizenship policies, nationality reforms, and immigrant incorporation politics. Focused on a decade of citizenship conflicts in France, Reconstructing Citizenship provides new insight into the re-envisioning of national membership taking place not just in France, but across European politics today.

Hammar, Tomas 1990: Democracy and the Nation State. Aliens, Denizens and Citizens in a World of International Migration, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot.
This book deals with participation of democratic processes (elections, parties, public debates) as well as identity and culture in a world of international migration.

Joppke, Christian 2000: Immigration and the Nation-State: The United States, Germany and Great Britain, Oxford University Press, Oxford
This important study compares the postwar politics of immigration control and immigrant integration in the United States, Germany, and Great Britain. Against current diagnoses of nation-states diminished by globalization and international human rights regimes and discourses, the author argues that nation-states have proved remarkably resilient, at least in the face of immigration.

Koslowski, Rey 2000: Migrants and Citizens: Demographic Change in the EuropeanState System, CornellUniversity Press, Ithaca, NY.
Rey Koslowski examines the impact of migration on international politics. He focuses on two related avenues of inquiry: the immediate political problems faced by the European Union, and the general issues that confront us as we try to understand the modern international system. Migration has become politically salient so quickly, Koslowski argues, because the nation-state, and the political institutions associated with it, developed in the centuries during which Western Europe was a net exporter of people. With the reversal of that trend less than a generation ago, many of these institutions have been revealed as ill-suited to deal with the political and policy demands brought on by the arrival of large numbers of foreign-born migrants. Koslowski discusses the problems within modern political institutions which international migration has disclosed.

Soysal, Yasemin 1995: Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership en Europe, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
In this book, Yasemin Soysal compares the different ways European nations incorporate immigrants, how these policies evolved, and how they are influenced by international human rights discourse. Soysal focuses on postwar international migration, paying particular attention to "guestworkers." Taking an in-depth look at France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, she identifies three major patterns that reflect the varying emphasis particular states place on individual versus corporate groups as the basis for incorporation. She finds that the global expansion and intensification of human rights discourse puts nation-states under increasing outside pressure to extend membership rights to aliens, resulting in an increasingly blurred line between citizen and noncitizen. Finally, she suggests a possible accommodation to these shifts: specifically, a model of post-national membership that derives its legitimacy from universal personhood, rather than national belonging.

Weil, Peter & Hansen, Randall 2001: Towards a European Nationality: Citizenship, Immigration and Nationality Law in the European Union, Palgrave, Basingstoke.
Adopting a comparative approach, the book examines the evolution of nationality law across the European Union since WWI. It explores the hypothesis that two factors, the experience of large-scale non-European immigration and the need to integrate a large and growing third country national population, have forced a convergence in European nationality law. The book accords attention to the role of gender and decolonization in reforms to nationality law.


Checkel, Jeffrey 2001: “Why Comply? Social Learning and European Identity Change," International Organization Vol.55, No.3, pp. 553 – 588.
Why do agents comply with the norms embedded in regimes and international institutions? Scholars have proposed two competing answers to this compliance puzzle, one rationalist, the other constructivist. Rationalists emphasize coercion, cost/benefit calculations, and material incentives; constructivists stress social learning, socialization, and social norms. Both schools, however, explain important aspects of compliance. This article examines the role of argumentative persuasion and social learning. This makes explicit the theory of social choice and interaction implicit in many constructivist compliance studies, and it broadens rationalist arguments about the instrumental and noninstrumental processes through which actors comply. It is argued that domestic politics-in particular, institutional and historical contexts-delimit the causal role of persuasion/social learning, thus helping both rationalists and constructivists to refine the scope of their compliance claims. To assess the plausibility of these arguments, the article examines why states comply with new citizenship/membership norms promoted by European regional organizations

Hansen, Randall & Jobst Koehler 2005: “Issue Definition, Political Discourse & the Politics of Nationality Reform in France and Germany“, European Journal of Political Research Vol. 44 (5).
This article examines reforms to citizenship, a highly politicized issue, in France and Germany in the 1990s. It begins with the fact that, against a dominant strain of scholarly thought emphasizing path dependence and policy continuity, nationality law was reformed four times in the two countries. Taking this puzzling outcome as its starting point, the article attempts to account for the evolution of nationality law in the two countries. The argument has three components. First, following a now-established line of research, it is argued that the terms of political debate have sharply narrowed since the Second World War. Appeals to ethnic bases of identity, national hierarchies and racial homogeneity, easy and natural before 1945, are now politically unacceptable. Second, this narrowing of the terms of discourse has not eliminated political debate over concepts of nationality, belonging and integration, but rather shifted it to a narrower sphere. In other words, political actors express their support for integration (as demanded by political necessity), but seek to redefine integration in a manner that continues to serve exclusionary ends. Third, the eventual policy outcome in citizenship reform reflects in large measure the definition that emerges triumphant from this battle over discourse. The article ends with a reflection on the broader role of argument, language and strategy in the study of comparative politics.

Howard, Marc Morjé 2006: "Comparative Citizenship: An Agenda for Cross-National Research", Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 4(3), p. 443-455.
This article attempts to integrate the study of citizenship into debates in comparative politics, in two different ways. First, the real-world importance of the topic is justified. Second, some suggestive evidence, based on the 15 “older” countries of the European Union (EU) is presented. The findings not only illustrate the extent of cross-national variation in citizenship policies at two different time periods, but they help to demonstrate the applicability of comparative analysis to categorizing and explaining both long-lasting cross-national differences and more recent change in some countries. In explaining the historical variation within the EU, it is consideres whether or not a country had a prior experience as a colonial power, as well as whether it became a democracy in the nineteenth century. In accounting for continuity or change over the last few decades, it is argued that while various international and domestic pressures have led to liberalization in a number of countries, these usually occurred in the absence of public discussion and involvement. In contrast, when public opinion gets mobilized and engaged on issues related to citizenship reform—usually by a well-organized far right party, but also sometimes by a referendum or petition campaign—liberalization is usually blocked, or further restrictions are introduced. This finding raises   paradoxical and troubling questions about the connection between democratic processes and liberal outcomes.

Special issue

Preuss, Ulrich K., Michelle Everson, Mathias Koenig-Archibugi & Edwige Lefebvre 2003: “Traditions of Citizenship in the European Union”. Citizenship Studies, Special issue 7/1, Routledge, London.
The creation of a European Union citizenship as a legal reality has raised important questions about the possibility of developing a common concept of citizenship on the basis of a variety of national traditions and understandings. The article illustrate the richness of elements that throughout the member states of the Union constitute the idea and practice of citizenship, and reflect on their compatibility with the further construction of a European polity.